United Nations Educational Guidelines
The United Nations is a program that allows students to take delegates from each country, get familiar with international issues and discuss these issues for their country of choice. The 4 basic skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening) are practiced and developed at both the research venues and the actual UN conference. During the week before the conference, delegates are continuing their research on the country, discussing the topic and their country's views on the topics in question. When the time comes for the meeting, the delegates discuss the agenda and try to find a solution to the problems; which should be voted on if they are to be adopted. So the delegates have to negotiate with one another and try to secure the "yes" vote for their position. By the end of the conference, students have more knowledge of international issues and issues they did not know otherwise. He also noticed that things done in their own country could affect global issues, such as global warming or child soldiers.
Although the MUN started only in 1945, model conferences, the roles of the nations in the League of Nations from the 1920s were far more advanced. Initially, the MUN was launched in the US and is very popular here in both high schools and universities. Although not known in Europe, the number and size of conferences are increasing. This year more than 200,000 students attend more than 400 MUN conferences in 50 countries around the world. The main conference in Japan is the All Japan MUN (AJMUN), which has about 300 students in 50 different high schools across the country. The Koyo Prefectural Senior School organizes 1 or 2 conferences in Okinawa all year round to which other Okinawan secondary school delegates are also invited. These conferences usually have about 50 students and each student is a delegate of a separate country.
Creating or Connecting a MUN Conference
The MUN Conference should serve both for teachers and students for this program. Whether the MUN is conducted as a club activity or as a classroom teaching, everything must be focused on the MUN Conference and emphasized the importance of attending attendees at the meeting.
Topic : The first thing to be determined at the MUN conference is the subject that needs to be debated. This may be a very specific issue, such as "North Korea's nuclear problem," or a much broader topic, such as "global warming" or "resource conflicts". If you have created your own conference, teachers need some ideas to be involved. Too general topic may be a conference that takes too long and does not produce a good final solution. The topic is too precise, which can result in a conference that will be completed within a few hours. At Koyo SHS classroom conferences are usually held between 10 am and 2 pm. Be creative about how to present the subject: In 2007, students talked about "Conflicting Diamonds and Ending Future Resource Conflicts". As an introduction, students watched the movie Blood Diamond. This accomplished several goals: students watched and listened to English-language films, met MUN points and did not feel they were in a classroom lesson. If you are joining a conference organized in another school, questions about choosing this topic are not relevant to you.
Country Selection : This is a very big deal for thinking about MUN conferences. You really want to create the geographic scope of countries that are participating in the conference. A good example for this is 25% of North American countries, 25% of Europe, 25% of Asia and Oceania and 25% of Africa. Try the same number of developed and developing countries at the conference – if not, negotiations can be very unilateral. Also think about the countries involved in this topic. For example, if global warming is the topic, you want to take the world's biggest pollutants and countries that can feel the effects of global warming, however small. Here it is appropriate to emphasize to the students that all countries are equal in the UN and all have one vote. Thus, smaller countries have as much power as the larger ones.
Research : After students have elected / distributed their country, work begins here. Their aim is to set up a resolution – a speech detailing the country's background, their country's views on the topic to be discussed and the possible measures that the United Nations should take. There is a lot of research to be done and it can be divided into 3 parts. First, the country is being explored for students to know where they are sent. For some countries this is easy but many students know where to find Maldives or Angola? If you start thinking about them then students need to have a worksheet to fill their chosen country. Students can showcase their country to their class so that everybody knows where every country is. The presentation can not be too indepthen to the beginning; show the country's name, place, flag, and then something more interesting for students to search and show, such as language. If students are on a high level, they can ask them to provide more detailed information about their country.
As soon as students bring a fairly solid foundation to their country, they can start researching the topic. However, it should be emphasized that students need to know and remember their country information. If the student does not remember that the leader or country of the country is an advanced or developing country, he will fight the MUN conference. Here, the foundations of knowledge must be created, as they build everything here. Knowledge can be tested in the selected country. Research on the theme of the MUN is first conducted on a global and global level (ie not specifically related to their country).
Teachers need to be actively involved in this part of the research and provide students with the following information about reading tasks. The teacher has to do a thorough research on the subject, as the students expect them to answer their questions. It also helps students manage their research. Be aware that there will be a lot of new words for the students and the reports should be made clear. If the subject is large, students can be asked to present a certain aspect. This allows them to focus a little on the research and then learn from performances by others. Teachers need to emphasize that presentation, listening and writing skills are essential for a good MUN delegate.
When students search for the subject, encourage English-language research. It may be harder to initially, but it will help them during the conference when they have to speak English about these things. And once again, be creative, how do you get students to research themes. This year, Koyo's students were asked to call in jewelry stores in Japan asking them where their diamonds came from and what their policy was about conflict diamonds. The students were not interested at first but were very successful and will continue and build on future conferences. Depending on the class type, you can insert the skit or the drama so that the students can present some of their themes.
The last part of the research connects to the previous part 2. Students need to look at the subject now and how it affects the country. This is part of the research where some students will be disappointed. Because, for example, there is no direct link between the UK and child soldiers, they think that there is nothing to talk about. But encourage students to think and look deeper. It may be that the weapons are used by the children's troops for British companies. Perhaps the resources they fight are used in Western goods; demand for goods and resources are high, so conflicts and murders continue to exist. Even if the country has nothing to do with the issue, encourage the student. This gives you the opportunity to be completely neutral at the conference and find the best solution for everyone. Students should strive for a resolution. This is a 2-3 minute (usually) speech consisting of 3 parts:
- A very brief introduction to the country
- Information about the problem and how it affects the country
- A general idea of how to solve the problem
Finding the tiny differences in the speech patterns on the web and in the students' resolution. This is because there is no set position paper. If a delegate only wants to talk about the problem without talking about their country and a possible solution, that is the choice and it is free to do so.
A common problem will be when the students begin the delegates and talk about their country that they are often too honest! Often, they continue the question from a neutral point of view and criticize their own country. For example, a Burmese / Myanmar delegate to the United Nations will announce that they recognize that many human rights abuses are taken as the first part of their position. This is a difficult challenge to overcome and should only encourage students to think as if they were from their chosen country. Hopefully, they will understand and perfect the speeches. Regional Block Meetings : Once the MUN Conference is approaching and status documents are completed, students need to continue the topic. If possible, teachers should search for related news and introduce them to the students. This is the time for regional block meetings, if possible. At this meeting, a delegate from one continent meets and talks about the problem. They will showcase their positions in smaller groups, then shorter Q & A sessions will be held. Their English position must be given in English, but it will be possible for students to ask questions in Japanese at these meetings. A clear understanding of the subject and the opinion of the countries is more important than the exercise of the English students' skills at this time.
The MUN Conference
The UN model conference, the climax of students and students, teachers' work always arrives much earlier than expected. One of the first things to do is to have the president and secretary prepare for the meeting. The chairman is usually selected before the meeting and teachers need to be taught about the conference preparation, the structure of the conference, and the terms they want to use. Delegates get a similar term with terms that they should use during the conference. Then, for each student, they give tables where the name of the country is written. This poster will be raised during the vote and when the delegates wish to move during the conference.
The MUN meeting has a fairly uniform format for delegates to follow. Sometimes changes will appear in the format, but if so, they will be announced at the beginning of the meeting.
Roll call : Invitation is made at the beginning of each day. This is simply a record of who countries are present at the meeting. The president calls the name of the country and the country will answer the poster and call the word "present". This will continue until all countries are read. If a country is not present, the President should be noted that he will later refer to it.
Speaker List : After the contact list is complete, the Speaker List opens. This is a list that has been listed on a tablet or projector screen so everyone can see, showing which countries are on the line to speak. Any student who wants to make a speech (ie, initially to issue a statement) must post the poster. The chair reads the names of the countries that raised their posters. As they read their country names, the delegates seize their posters and the secretary writes their names down. This order is the order of speech. If the delegates want to speak after the first speakers list, they can write a note to the president asking them to be included in the list of speakers.
The Speakers' Time is a list, time of speech has to be decided. Usually it's 2-3 minutes. There are two forms of this process. First, a delegate can propose a deadline for the speeches, and then cast an immediate vote on the people who agree or disagree (without abstentions). Alternatively, four short speeches can be made (instead of 2 and 2 opposite) after speaking time and voting time. Formal Debates / Resolutions Students will come to the fore and begin the talks. The first country in the list of loudspeakers arrives in front of the room and presents its position to all the delegates and the chair. Those who do not have a speech listen carefully to the speeches, make notes and not talk. The information provided in the position papers will be useful to everyone when we talk about solutions. If the loudspeaker does not speak loud or unambiguously, one of the other delegates or the president must break the loudspeaker and ask them louder. One of the most active part of the meeting, though some delegates see it as a break. This is where they do a lot of work and hold discussions. The group must be proposed by a delegate and a vote is needed (delegates must or should not vote, they do not have to abstain). The club member is a meeting of a certain duration (usually 5-15 minutes) where students can walk freely in the room and talk freely to anyone they ask for. In these discussions we find opinions, raised questions and solutions. This is the time when the staff and the draft decisions were set up by the delegates. Students should be allowed to speak Japanese if these sessions are required (this is the only part of the conference where this is allowed) and every student sat down and did not speak to anyone, they should be encouraged to participate
. Informal debate : The informal debate at the United Nations Conference on Type 3 meeting, similar to the Q & A session. This is normally requested after the submission of a working document or a draft resolution. The group must be proposed by a delegate and a vote is needed (delegates must or should not vote, they do not have to abstain). At this meeting, students can ask questions about specific delegates or all delegates as a whole. To do this, you need to pick up the poster and call it "President". If the chair calls the name of the country, the sender can speak on the ground. You can also comment on the things you saw or heard at the meeting. If a delegate is asked, they will be encouraged (but not compelled) to answer the question as best they can. Here is very important tacit and fast thinking ability. It should also be noted that before answering a question you do not have to answer the question. Notes: : We can not talk in the formal and informal part of the meeting unless we talk about the earth and everyone. But sometimes students need to interact with each other to talk about their ideas. For this reason, notebooks are used. The sender writes the message to a sheet of paper and then passes it to a page, a student or teacher responsible for issuing notes and notes. The student should remember to write out who the message came from and who it is. As the meeting becomes more and more vague, messages often go to the room, and usually more than one page is needed.
Working Paper : This is the first major step in solving the problem. A working document is an idea presented to all the representatives of one or more countries. Describes a specific solution to the problem or a general solution and solutions to the problem. The workpiece has no format, which means that diagrams, pictures, tables, graphs, etc. Can be used. The only thing the workbook needs is a workpiece number (usually WP1, WP2, WP3, etc.) and the countries in which it wrote the paper.
The paper must first be submitted by the president who will produce photocopies. If this is done, the sponsor (the sender (s) who wrote it) may suggest the chairman wanting to lead their working document. The sponsor asks whether they intentionally orally explain their lap. If you decide that the sponsors will come to the room and explain the paper. After giving a working document to the floor, it is likely that a club (that is, people will have time to read the paper on the paper) or an informal discussion (ie questions and comments on the paper) will start. If none of these are listed, the meeting will return to the formal debate after the tab launch.
Draft Resolution : The most difficult and complex part of the UN conference is the most important: drafting a resolution. This is a detailed plan that addresses issues discussed at the meeting and contains a number of measures that need to be addressed. The most difficult part of the draft resolution is to follow a rigorous form and contain a number of rules, the most important of which are:
- The draft resolution has only one sentence. It does not matter that the draft resolution is 5 lines long or 5 pages long, only one sentence. The resolutions and clauses in the resolution are selected with commas (,) and half-associates (;)
- The draft resolution requires a document number. This is usually like DR1 or DR2, and the president will issue a resolution to the draft decision.
- The draft decision needs sponsors and signers. In short, sponsors are countries that agree with the draft resolution as a whole. However, the signatories are countries that agree with some of the draft resolution, but not all. The aggregate number of sponsors and signatories must be 25% or more than the total number of countries participating in the meeting.
- The draft resolution must consist of 2 parts:
- Part 1 discusses the problem and what is happening
- The second part is about the solution and what it will do (operational clauses).
- The last part of the draft resolution reads "He decides to seize the matter."
Another issue of the draft resolution is the text used at the beginning of each clause. We can use different strength words depending on the situation and what the delegate is talking about. Examples of words that can be used in individual resolutions at the beginning of the draft resolution:
– Reliable  – I declare 
– with deep concern
] – invites
– regrets that
proposals for amendments to the resolution: sometimes the United Nations allows changes following the submission of draft decisions. These are called modifications. This means that a country may change the draft decision (addition, modification or deletion). There are two kinds of changes: friendly and unfriendly.
Friendly – This means that the supporters of the draft resolution agree that the change will take place. Amendment applies automatically to the draft decision
Not friendly – Supporters of the draft resolution disagree with the modification of the amendment. In this case, the vote will be voted on before the draft resolution is voted.
If changes are used for the meeting, a modification form is usually available for delegates. This form covers which country is making the change, what kind of change it would make and whether it is a friendly or unfriendly change.
The sender will write the change and forward it to the sponsors of the draft decision. Decides whether you are friendly or unfriendly (ie agree or disagree with the changes you make) and return it. The delegate drafting the amendment shall then submit it to the President. The president then reads the amendment and approves it before submitting the word. The author of the modification will have the opportunity to explain why you want this change to be made.
Closing of the debate : After resolutions and amendments have been put in place and discussed in full, it is time to vote on them. But before the vote, the list of speakers should be closed then the debate should be closed so that the vote can begin. This requires the delegates to close the motion for a list of speakers (and the motion voted), and then this debate is closed (and likewise voted). : The final part will take place at the UN conference in the form of a vote. First, they vote for any adverse change (yes / no / residence vote). Subsequently, the draft resolutions will be cast in the order of their introduction. Countries should be asked to vote aloud in alphabetical order. Delegates can choose from 4 different ways: Yes / No / Stay / Transfer. If a delegate chooses to "pass", the president requests additional countries. When the list is completed, the President returns to the first round of delegates. Keep in mind that the delegate can only choose one. If the number of "yes" votes exceeds the number of "no" votes, regardless of the residency, the movement takes place in the General Assembly and in the Economic and Social Council. In the Security Council, 66% of the votes needed to reach the draft resolution. Keep in mind that only permanent members (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and USA) have veto votes in the Security Council . This means that if a country votes "no" for the draft resolution, it can not be passed, regardless of how many "yes" votes it has received.
At the end of the vote, a motion will be tabled for the meeting and the meeting will be closed.
I hope this gives you some insight into how to implement the United Nations model in school curriculum. I highly recommend the course, especially in areas where students generally have no global outlook.
Source by sbobet th