Child Soldiers – From Uganda to Guantanamo
In military conflicts, the use of child soldiers is a question that human rights organizations worldwide have documented worldwide, Human Rights Watch currently estimates that nearly 300,000 children are "soldiers to both rebel groups and government forces in current armed conflicts "Some are forced to take part in the risk, others have been abducted and many are volunteering to receive food and shelter in areas where the resources are scarce. Because of the emotional vulnerability and inadequacy of children, they are often drawn to the most violent acts of militant groups and terrorist organizations. Children in conflict significantly outnumber casualties than adults, and those who survive severe psychological difficulties and physical injuries but often receive little support for rehabilitation after the conflict is over.
The problem is worldwide but most critical in African countries, such as Burundi and Rwanda, where age of confiscation is as low as 15 in Uganda children, while 13 have been notified of parental consent. Sri Lanka's relief agencies found that children were specifically abducted in terrorist activities, UNICEF reports that the Tamil Liberation Tigris kidnapped approximately 5666 children for militia activities, although the actual number is likely to be much higher, estimating that these cases only one third of them actually report. In Chechnya, boys and girls who have 11 children and children think that they have participated in suicide bombings, current estimates in the region are deficient because of the ban on media and humanitarian organizations.
Contrary to international efforts to rehabilitate African child soldiers, the United States claimed that children at the age of 14 are considered extraordinary extradition in the Global War on Terrorism and violate the Geneva Convention, an open court that defines civilian or war crimes the status of detainees. The United States government has announced the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child that by 2008 approximately 2500 children were detained in Iraq, Afghanistan and Guantanamo, claiming that eight children were held in Guantanamo. This figure was later rebroadcasted by twelve defeats, including Yassar Talal Al Zahranit, who was taken to Guantanamo at age 16 and committed suicide at the age of 21 after more than half a decade of arrests. Omar Khadr, a child warrior who has been detained in Guantanamo Bay Camp Delta since the age of 15, confirms that torture techniques were used during the interview.
It is the only industrialized nation that enrolled in military service at the age of 16, the United Kingdom, who fights in armed conflicts at the age of 17. The British Ministry of Defense confirmed that fifteen underage soldiers were deployed by Britain to Iraq in June 2003 and July 2005. It is estimated that 6,000 and 7,000 soldiers are under 18 years of age in violation of United Nations armed forces in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child ratified in 1991 and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Participation of Children in Armed Conflicts, adopted by the United Nations in 2000 and ratified in 2003 in Britain. the United Kingdom has attached the declaration of ratification to the use of age-group soldiers, a real military need, and because of the nature and urgency of the situation, virtually no such person can be removed before the installation. "
The latest magnetic resonance imaging brain research at the University of Pittsburgh's Traumatology Laboratory found that children exposed to violence hinder brain development, cognitive problems and memory disorders. In 2009, Douglas Mental Health University, McGill Studies conducted by the University of Montreal, Quebec and the Institute of Clinical Sciences of Singapore indicate that children exposed to trauma show genetic changes due to the chemical effects of stress-response hormones. This research confirms that long-term damage can be caused by violence during the development period , and recent imaging studies at National Health Institutes show that anatomically significant changes in brain structures occur after 18 years suggesting that human brain development is not until the mid-twenties. studies may have implications for further legislation on the use of military minors.
The rehabilitation of child soldiers is a difficult process, and adaptation to normal life is full of the ghosts of their past; they were the victims and perpetrators of brutality, many committed themselves to the ideology or politics of their families or communities, some were war orphans who were forced to fight and others joined the militias to avenge the murders they witnessed during the conflicts. Her soldiers allegedly joined forces with forced marriages, sex slavery, domestic violence, exploitation and abuse. Most of them come from impoverished areas and did not have the opportunity to gain education or work ability, which often leave them without alternative.
International efforts to end the use of Child Soldiers and the Red Hand Day, the annual commemoration on 12 February, will help raise awareness of the arrangement of child soldiers and finance rehabilitation programs. counseling and working ability to help them reintegrate into society and lead a productive life.
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